The agreement is the result of a renegotiation between the member states of the North American Free Trade Agreement, which gave informal agreement on 30 September 2018 and officially on 1 October under the new agreement.  The USMCA was proposed by U.S. President Donald Trump and signed on November 30, 2018 by Trump, Mexican President Enrique Pea Nieto and Canadian Prime Minister Justin Trudeau as a secondary event of the 2018 G20 summit in Buenos Aires. A revised version was signed on December 10, 2019 and ratified by the three countries, with final ratification (Canada) taking place on March 13, 2020 just before the Canadian Parliament adjourned due to the COVID-19 pandemic. Unlike a customs union, parties to a free trade agreement do not hold common external tariffs, i.e. different tariffs, or other policies concerning non-members. This function allows non-parties to free themselves as part of a free trade agreement by entering the market with the lowest external tariffs. Such a risk requires the introduction of rules for determining which products originate may be preferred under a free trade agreement, which is not necessary for the establishment of a customs union.  In principle, there is a minimum processing time leading to a “substantial processing” of the products, so they can be considered original products. By the definition of products originating in the PTA, the preferential rules of origin distinguish between domestic and non-origin products: only the former are eligible for preferential tariffs provided by the ESTV, which must pay the import duties of the MFN.  A free trade agreement is an agreement between two or more countries whereby countries agree on certain obligations affecting trade in goods and services as well as the protection of investors and intellectual property rights.
For the United States, the primary objective of trade agreements is to remove barriers to U.S. exports, protect U.S. interests abroad, and improve the rule of law in partner countries or countries of the free trade agreement. The European Commission reports annually on the implementation of its main trade agreements in the previous calendar year. On November 30, 2018, the USMCA was signed as planned by the three parties at the G20 summit in Buenos Aires.   Disputes over labour rights, steel and aluminum prevented ratification of this version of the agreement.   Canadian Deputy Prime Minister Chrystia Freeland, U.S. Trade Representative Robert Lightizer, and Mexican Under-Secretary of State for North America Jesus Seade officially signed a revised agreement on December 10, 2019, ratified by the three countries on March 13, 2020. Why Switzerland Is Concerned About British Trade After Brexit On 1 June 2020, USTR robert Lighthizer`s office unlocked the uniform rules, which are the last hurdle before the agreement is implemented on 1 July 2020. The text of the agreement is available here: ustr.gov/trade-agreements/free-trade-agreements/united-states-mexico-canada-agreement/uniform-regulations Currently, the United States has 14 free trade agreements with 20 countries.